Arch Irn Med 2001; 4 (3): 133-137
Effects of Garlic and Nimodipine on Cerebral Blood Flow and Their Neuroprotective Effects After Brain Ischemia in Rabbit
Hossein Eskandary MD ,Mahdokht Shahabi MD, Shahriar Dabiri MD
Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Nimodipine has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect. Garlic also displays features that are potentially effective in inhibiting ischemic damage. In this study the efficacy of both garlic and nimodipine in preventing ischemic brain injury were assessed. Twenty-four rabbits were divided into four groups: nimodipine-treated group (NP), garlic treated group (GR), normal saline group (NS) and polyethylene glycol-treated as the vehicle group (VH). All animals were subjected to 15 minutes of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion. NP and GR groups received garlic and nimodipine 60 minutes before occlusion of the CCA respectively. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, during and fter the occlusion. Histopathology of the brain was blindly evaluated. The percentage of degenerated cells in the hippocampus was estimated and vascular congestion was graded on a 3-point scale (0, I, II).
After reperfusion, nimodipine and garlic increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) by 41% and 24% respectively. Comparing these values to the extent of CBF increase in the VH and NS (2% in both) groups, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The percentage of degenerated neuronal cells in zone CA1 was 23%, 31%, 43% and 44% in NP, GR, VH and NS groups, respectively. NP and GR showed a higher grade of congestion compared to control groups (VH and NS) (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that neuronal damage to the rabbit hippocampus is reduced by garlic administration, although nimodipine can increase CBF more effectively.
Keywords: Garlic, cerebral ischemia, cerebral blood flow, nimodipine
Indexed in: EMBASE
Arch Iranian Med 2002; 5 (3): 162-165
Serum Concentration of Chromium in Head Injury Patients
Hossein Eskandary MD ,Nader Nowbari MD
Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman, Iran.
Certain trace elements such as zinc and copper have been studied in head injury patients. In this study, we decided to determine whether serum chromium concentrations were affected by the severity of a head injury. The study was conducted on 30 male patients aged from 10 to 30 years. Patients were divided into three groups based on the Glascow Coma Scale; 1-mild, 2-moderate and 3-severe head injury. Serum samples for chromium were obtained during the first four hours after head injury and analyzed by neutron activation analysis technique. Two independent sample t-test was used to compare the mean serum concentration of chromium in different groups. Mean ± SD of serum concentration of chromium was 1.41 ± 0.2 mg/l in the first, 1.58 ± 0.23 mg/l in the second and 1.42 ± 0.23 mg/l in the third group of patients. There was on significant difference among the three groups with respect to the serum concentration of chromium. To define the time-related changes of chromium and severity of the head injury, the total intake of chromium and other relevant factors should be considered in future studies.
Keywords: Brain chromium, head injury, trace element
Indexed in: EMBASE
Iran Journal Med Sci 2002; 27 (2): 87-89
Evaluation of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome by laser Doppler Flowmetry
H Eskandary, M Shahabi, A. R. Asadi
Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman, Iran.
Autonomic disturbance can leads to blood flow changes that can be studied by various methods. To assess the blood flow changes in patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome by laser Doppler flowmetry. Ten patients with severe unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome confirmed by electrodiagnosic examination enrolled in this study. Patients comprised one man and nine women with mean age of 37 years, an average duration of symptoms for 29 weeks. Unaffected hand and little finger of affected hand were used as control. Skin blood flow was measured in neutral, flexed and extended positions of hands. There was significant reduction of skin blood flow of median nerve territory as compared to control (unaffected hand) (P<0.05). There was also significant (P<0.05) reduction of blood flow of median nerve territory as compare to ulnar nerve territory of affected hand except in extended position.
Circulatory disturbances are seen in hand skin of CTS patients. This change depends on the type and severity of CTS. This study showed a reduction of skin blood flow in severe from of CTS.
Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome, laser Doppler flowmetry, skin blood flow, autonomic disturbance
Indexed in: EMBASE
Arch Iranian Med 2003; 6 (1): 54-58
Spontaneous Thrombosis in Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation after Minor Surgical Manipulation: A case report
Hossein Eskandary1 MD, Kaveh Ashraf-Ganjouie1 MD and Mohammad Saba2 MD
1. Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Research Center.
2. Department of Radiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
The complete or partial spontaneous disappearance of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation is rare. Spontaneous thrombosis in Irage arteriovenous malformations has been reported in only two cases. We report the case of a large arteriovenous malformation in a 17-year-old man, that thrombosed spontaneously after minor surgical manipulation and review the literature and some possible mechanisms for spontaneous thrombosis of arteriovenous malformation.
Keywords: arteriovenous malformation, mechanism, spontaneous disappearance, thrombosis.
Indexed in: EMBASE
Arch Iranian Med 2003; 6 (3): 212-213
Anticonvulsant Effect of Sour Orange Flowers Extract in Experimental Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizures in Rat
Majid Mahmoodi1 PhD, Alireza Zohoor2 PhD, Majid Asadi1 MSc
1. Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman.
2. Department of Epidemiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Seizures are disorders characterized by excessive or over-synchronized discharge of cerebral neurons and epilepsy is a group of disorders characterized by recurrent seizures. But we still do not have an ideal antiepileptic drug with no side effects. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L) is one of the medicinal plants which has been grown all over the world because of its therapeutic effects and as a source of nourishment. As a traditional drug in Islamic medicine and as a folk remedy, the flowers of this plant has been used to cure seizures, heart ailment and nervous disorders such as hysteria and neural weakness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of sour orange flowers against lethal seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), with known mechanism of action, in Wistar rats.
Eight groups of rats were used in these experiments. The first group (control) received vehicle (normal saline). The second group (positive control) received diazepam (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]). Four other groups were pretreated with one of the doses of plant extract (120, 150, 175 and 200 mg/kg, IP). Thirty minutes later, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with PTZ. The other two groups were pretreated orally with one of the doses of plant extract (300 and 400 mg/100 ml of drinking water) for five days and then they received PTZ. The efficacy of the extract (or the drug in positive control group) to protect the animals against lethal seizures was defined as the latency of the appearance of the first stage of seizures or the latency of the different epileptic manifestations, absence of any convulsive response and decrease in mortality rate of each group. The results showed that, when the animals were pretreated via IP route, the extract of the flowers could attenuate PTZ-induced seizures in rats, evidenced by the significantly longer latencies of the appearance of writhing reflex (at the doses of the 150, 175 and 200 mg/kg) as well as myoclonic jerks (at the dose of 150 mg/kg) and the reduction of the incidence of mortality rate in most pretreated groups. Flavonoids are complex chemical molecules, which have also been found in other medicinal plants. PTZ has been classified as a central benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that the flavonoid in the sour orange flowers extract might behave as a partial agonist of benzodiazepine receptors decreasing the antagonistic effect of PTZ on this system.
Indexed in: EMBASE
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2004) 4: 215-223
The Effect of Gabapentin on Withdrawal Syndrome, Psychiatric Disorders and Electroencephalogram of Opium Addicts during the Detoxification Period
Mina Mobasher*1, Hassan Ziaaddini2, Akbar Hamzeii Moghaddam2, Fatima Sabzvari2 and Saleh Sadeghipour2
1. Kerman Islamic Azad University, Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman, Iran.
2. Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Substance abuse is an important health, psychological and social problem in the world. Gabapentin is a new antiepileptic drug. It is used in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Moreover the effects of gabapentin on increasing the analgesic effect of morphine and its inhibitory effects on dopamine release due to morphine in animal models have been proved.
In the present study, the effect of gabapentin on withdrawal signs and symptoms in opium -addicted participants and on psychiatric disorders and electroencephalogram of these patients during the detoxification period has been investigated. Two groups of patients were selected randomly. The first group (n=36) received the current drugs based on their withdrawal symptoms and the second group (n=35) received an additional 900 mg gabapentin daily.
All the patients were evaluated by electroencephalography and Symptom Check List-90-Revised on the first and last days of hospitalization and their demographic characteristics were gathered by using a general questionnaire. During the hospitalization period (10 days) all the patients were visited daily for withdrawal signs and symptoms. The analysis of data showed the excellent effect of gabapentin on all psychiatric symptoms and in decreasing signs and symptoms significantly. A gradual decrease of withdrawal signs and symptoms in the second group shows the efficacy of gabapentin. There was no significant difference between the two groups, regarding to the electroencephalogram indices. The results show that gabapentin improves the quality of therapeutic management in opium-addicts during the detoxification period.
Keywords: Gabapentin, opium, detoxification period, electroencephalogram, Symptom Check List-90-Revised.
Indexed in: Chemical Abstract
Hamdard Medicus, Vol. XLVII, No. 3, 2004
Prevalence of Migraine Headache and Effective Environmental Factors in Kerman: a Population Based Survey
A. Hamzeimoghadam1, M.Mobasher,2 and A. Bahrampoor3
1- Neurologist Medical University.
2- Neuroscience Research Center.
3- Epidemiologist Medical University, Kerman, Iran
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of migraine headache among Kermanian adults (aged>12 years) and analyse variation by age, gender, occupation and educational level.
A population-based survey was undertaken using questionnaire interviews with 1,488 adults, who were randomly selected from households across, Kerman by cluster regional sampling. There are questions about frequency and characteristics of headaches experienced and other symptoms in the questionnaire. The diagnostic criteria of the international headache society were used to classify people as migraineurs (with or withoutaura).
Of 1,488 random selected adults, 427 were headachers and 30 were migraineurs. The prevalence of migraineurs among males was 0.8% and among females was 3.4% For females prevalence appears to increase with age, peaking of 26-41 years and declining thereafter. Sex specific prevalence females and males was controlled for age, was significantly lower in males. We found no association between migraine prevalence and educational level or occupation. We found association between migraine prevalence and environmental factors, anxiety, insomnia, light, sound, fatigue, activity, smoking, menstruation, which was significant.
Keywords: migraine, prevalence, epidemiology
Indexed in: Biological Abstract, WHO Index Medicus
DARU Volume 12, No. 4, 2004
Antinociceptive Effects and Toxicity of Fumaria Parviflor Lam.
in Mice and Rats
Mahmood Reza Heidari1, Ali Mandegary1,2, Mohsen Enayati1
1. Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman,
2. Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
In this study the antinociceptive and histopathological effects of the methanolic extract of fumaria parviflora lam. in animal models was investigated. For this purpose, the antinociceptive effects of percolated and soxhlet extracts were evaluated in mice subjected to acute thermal (hot-plate) and persistent chemical (formalin) pain stimuli. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the percolated extract evoked significant antinociceptive effects at a dose of 100 mg/kg in the second phase of formalin test. The maximum antinociceptive effect was induced by the dose of 300 mg/kg that was significant in both phases of formalin test. Dose of 400 mg/kg of the percolated extract induced acute adverse effects such as diarrhea, polyurea, malasia and hyperventilation in mice. Soxhlet extract of F. parviflora (300 mg/kg, i.p.) also showed significant effects in the both phases of formalin test. The most effective dose of the percolated extract as well as the soxhlet extracts (300 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated in hot plate test. The results showed that only percolated extract had significant antinociceptive effect in hot-plate. Pretreatment of mice with naloxane, an opioid antagonist, did not change antinociceptive effect of percolated extract in formalin test, but in hot-plate it increased extract's effect after the first 15 minutes. In histopathological evaluation of liver, toxic dose of percolated extract (400 mg/kg) caused degeneration, necrosis and regeneration of hepatic cells. The study of ulcerogenic effects of oral percolated extract on stomach in rats showed that this adverse effect was significantly lower in comparison with the same dose of indomethacin. These results showed F. parviflora is relatively safe for use and it is a good candidate for further studies to determine its effective and probable toxic compound(s).
Keywords: Fumaria parviflora lam, antinociceptive histopathology, ulcerogenic effect, formalin test, hot-plate
Indexed in: ISI / Chemical Abstract / EMBASE
American Journal of Environmental Sciences 1 (3): 206-208, 2005
Electro-diagnostic and Clinical Changes of Peripheral Neuropathies in Bam Earthquake Victims
Naser Zangiabadi1,2 and Mohammad Naeem Ahrari3
1- Afzal Research Institute, Shahid Rajaee Street, Kerman, Iran.
2- Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman Medical Sciences University, Kerman, Iran. 3- Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Kerman, Medical Sciences University, Kerman, Iran
To examine and diagnose patients who injured in Bam earthquake at 5:26:52 Am (local time) on Friday, December 26, 2003 with traumatic peripheral neuropathies then treat and follow up. A longitudinal study was deigned. 159 patients with traumatic neuropathies were selected at the first stage of study. After six months follow up only 39 patients satisfied to enter the study. Clinical examination, Nerve conduction velocity, F wave and H wave were done and registered. The male and female frequency was equal (19M/20F) and average of age was 31.1+/-11.6. During 6 months period following earthquake 19 cases (48.7%) were improved in healing of neuropathies and were better in both neurological examination and electro-diagnostic tests. The repeated measurement analysis of variances did not reveal any difference in healing of nerves in sex and age groups. So patients gender and age did not influence on recovery of neuropathies. The neurophathy injuries in Bam earthquake was the same as other earthquakes in Japan, China and Turkey, approximately. The notification to neuropathy in crush injuries and extremity damage for early diagnosis and treatment of neuropathies is considerable. At the earthquake disaster management, It is important that trained person rescue the victims of prevent extra injuries.
Key words: Iran, neuropathy, earthquake, electro-diagnostic, Bam
Indexed in: Biotechnology Abstract / Biosciences Abstract
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2005
Evaluation of In Vitro Production of IFN-g, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13 by Blood Cells in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions
Majid Mahmoodi1,2, Saeid Rajabalian1, Alireza Fekri1 and Iraj Esfandiarpour
1- Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
2- Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
This study investigated the in vitro production of interferon-g, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 and IL-13, after antigenic stimulation of the cells (with Leishmania antigen and lipopolysaccharide) using whole blood from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions caused by Leishmania tropica and in normal volunteers with history of cutaneous leishmaniasis. ELISA results showed that the mean production of interferon-g by cells of whole blood in patients with lesions in response to Leishmania antigen was significantly lower than corresponding values in volunteers with history of cutaneous leishmaniasis (P<0.05) and significantly higher levels of IL-10 production in patients with lesions were observed compared with cured volunteers of the disease (P<0.01). A similar level of IL-12, including p40 subunit of IL-12, was detected in both groups tested in this study in response to stimulation of parasite antigen. The levels of the IL-13 after stimulation with Leishmania antigen were significantly more in patients compared with volunteers with history of cutaneous leishmaniasis (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the mean production of IFN-g, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13 by PHA or LPS stimulated cells from patients with lesions and volunteers with history of the disease, indicating that there was no qualitative defect in cytokine production in these patients. In this study, we have detected the decreased production of interferon-g by cells of patients with lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis in response to parasite antigen and unbalanced production of regulatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-13 using the whole-blood stimulation assay technique. The required small volume of blood and the rapid set up time are the advantages in this assay technique. Using this assay for further immunodection of cytokines may confirm its value for clinical investigation.
Key words: Interferon-Gamma, interleukin 5, interleukin 10, interleukin 12, interleukin 13, Leishmania tropica, leishmaniasis
Indexed in: Index Medicus for the WHO Eastern Mediterranian region (IME MR)
Addictive Behaviors 30 (2005) 1464-1467
Estimating the Prevalence of Cannabinoid Use Urine Testing: A Preliminary Study in Kerman, Iran
Manzume Shamsi Meimandi, Nouzar Nakhaee, Kouros Divsalar, Shahriar Dabiri
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
This primary study performed to determine the prevalence rate of cannabinoid consumed in Kerman (Iran). Urine samples of 700 males, referred to a clinical lab in Kerman city were collected for detection of cannabinoid metabolites. Assessment analysis was a monophasic immunoassay rapid technique. The study was completely blind and only age and residence of samples were revealed. All stages were confirmed and supervised by the ethics committee. The prevalence of cannabinoid use was 0.6%. All four positive cases were urban, with ages 31, 36, 40 and 67. More than 90% of referred cases were urban with mean age of 46.8 ± 16 while the mean age of rural cases was 54.3 ± 17 years. Considering the age range and possibility of the underlying disease in the study population, the prevalence of cannabinoid use was more than what was expected. Urine analysis as a method for assessing the prevalence rate requires a wide sample size and age distribution matching the age distribution of the study population. In addition, the entrance criteria should not include sick cases.
Key words: Cannabinoids, urinalysis, prevalence, Iran
Indexed in: Medline
International Journal of Pharmacology 1 (2): 167-171, 2005
Gender Related Differences in Antinociceptive Properties of Morphine after Gonadectomy in Male and Female Rats
M. Shamsi Meimandi1, G.R. Sepehri2 and A. Esmaili2
1. Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
2. Department of physiology and pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran
In this study gonadectomy was undertaken to evaluate gender-differences in antinociceptive effects of morphine. Ninety NMRI adult male and female rats in three groups of intact, sham-operated and gonadectomized were tested by Hot-plate assay. The latency time was recorded three times before and every 15 min until 2 h after morphine (7 and 12 mg/kg-1 s.c.). Some procedure was repeated in days 7, 21 and 35 after surgical operation.
The data were expressed as latency time and maximum possible effect (%MPE). There was not any significant gender differences in base line latency time in intact and also in sham operated rats at days 7, 21 and 35, while in gonadectomized rats the base line latency time of male were decreased significantly at 21 st and 35th day compared to female rats. The analgesic response to 12 mg/kg-1 s.c. of morphine was significantly higher in intact male rats while in day 35th after gonadectomy it was decreased significantly compared to females. By 7 mg/kg-1 s.c. of morphine %MPE of males was decreased only in 35th day. In sham operated and all other groups no gender differences was observed in %MPE. So gonadectomy decreased pain threshold sensation especially in male rats. The analgesic response to morphine decreased in both sexes but in male rats it was more pronounced, especially by higher doses of morphine (12 mg/kg-1 s.c.). This phenomenon may be described by different density and affinity of opioid receptors which their function depends on morphine dosage and/or sex hormone level.
Keywords: sex, antinociception, morphine, gonadectomy, rat
Indexed in: Chemical Abstract / Pubmed
International Journal of Pharmacology 1 (2): 161-166, 2005
Gabapentin Increases Analgesic Effect of Chronic Use of Morphine while Decreases Withdrawal Signs
M. Shamsi Meimandi, M. Mobasher, G.R. Sepehri and N. Ashrafganjooei
Department of physiology and pharmacology, Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran
This study was performed to evaluate the role of gabapentin co-administration in morphine antinociceptin and withdrawal effect. Four groups of male rats were examined for latency time using tail flick test; control, morphine (M), gabapentin (GB) and gabapentin-morphine (GB-M) treated groups. Rats received morphine
(10 mg/kg-1, s.c.) or gabapentin (75 mg/kg-1, i.p.) or both of them twice a day for 9 days. Control rats received normal saline as schedule time. Latency time was recorded 3 times (5 min of interval) before drug injection and in 60, 65 and 70 min after drug injection in days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 by tail flick test. Percentage of Maximal Possible Effect (%MPE) as antinociceptive effect was calculated for all groups. On 9th day, rats were challenged for withdrawal signs by administration of naloxone (2 mg/kg-1, i.p.).
Analysis of variance showed no significant difference of %MPE in control and GB groups while in M and GB-M groups the %MPE was changed significantly during the days of study. Gabapentin had no analgesic effect while morphine and gabapentin-morphine had significant analgesic effect compared to control. %MPE of GB-M treated rats was significantly higher than M in days 5, 7 and 9. Also this study showed that pre-treatment with gabapentin reduced most of the opioid withdrawal signs including jumping, weight loss and fore paw tremor. The mechanism(s) by which gabapentin enhances the analgesic effect of chronic use of morphine and attenuate opioid withdrawal signs remain to be establish.
Keywords: analgesia, morphine, withdrawal syndrome, gabapentin
Indexed in: Chemical Abstract / Pubmed
Journal of Applied Sciences 5 (2): 380-382, 2005
The Household Survey of Drug Abuse in Kerman, Iran
Hasan Ziaaddini and Mohammad Reza Ziaaddini
Department of psychiatry, Kerman Medical Sciences University, Kerman, Iran
To ascertain the prevalence of drug abuse among Iranian people a cross sectional household population based survey with census sampling was designed. The Roehampton questionnaire was used for evaluation. Opium abuse was the most frequent substance abuse (17.1%) and opioid dependency was 5.3%. Any one consumed alcohol. Only 4 person had daily use of cannabis, 3 person had daily use of heroin and 8 person had daily abuse of tranquilizers. The most common usage method was inhalation and there was no injection. There was a statistical significant difference between sex and substance abuse. In Iran like other countries drug abuse in male is more frequent than female. The most common substance abuse is opium, it should be noted in Iran, it is very difficult to obtain LSD, cocaine, or psychedelics, specially, in rural area. Cultural attitude toward substance use quite likely affect the types and patterns of use.
Keywords: Substance abuse, drug, prevalence, addict, Kerman, Iran
Indexed in: Chemical Abstract
Article in press
Brain Research Bulletin xxx (2005) xxx-xxx
Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Stimulation Modulates the Response of Layers IV and V Barrel Cortical Neurons In Rat
Vahid Sheibani, Rasoul Farazifard
Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman.
The effect of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) electrical stimulation On-response properties of layers IV and V barrel cortical neurons was studied. To assess the receptive field characteristics of cortical neurons, responses of neurons were recorded following the displacement of principal and adjacent whiskers individually or in a condition test paradigm. Then neuronal responses to the displacement of whiskers were analyzed following DRN stimulation at 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 ms inter-stimulation intervals. Considering on responses, DRN stimulation suppressed the response magnitude of layer V neurons to principal whisker deflection, while it slightly increased that of layer IV neurons (not statistically significant). The response latency of layer IV neurons increased when DRN was stimulated 200 or 400 ms before principal whisker deflection, while the response latency of layer V was not changed. DRN stimulation had no effect on either magnitude or latency of neuronal response to the adjacent whisker deflections. We observed a decrease in the inhibitory effect of the adjacent whisker deflection on the magnitude of neuronal response to the principal whisker deflection in layer IV when DRN was stimulated 200 ms before the principal whisker deflection. Off responses did not show any significant effect of DRN stimulation. Our results suggest a modulating role for DRN in processing of the incoming information into barrel cortex. This effect might be location dependent.
Key words: Barrel cortex, dorsal raphe nucleus, serotonin, sensory processing
Indexed in: ISI / Medline
Article in press
Journal of Ethnopharmacology xxx (2005) xxx-xxx
Evaluation of the Analgesic Effect of Echium amoenum Fisch and C.A. Mey. Extract in Mice: Possible Mechanism Involved
Mahmoud Reza Heidari1*, Elham Moein Azad1, Mitra Mehrabani2
1. Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Neuroscience Research Center and Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
2. Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman, Iran.
Echium amoenum Fisch and C.A Mey. has been used in Iranian traditional medicine as demulcent and analgesic in common cold from long ago. In this investigation, the analgesic effect of the methanolic extract of the petals of this plant on male albino mice was evaluated by formalin and hot-plate test. The methanolic percolated extract with different doses 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally to mice. The results showed that the dose of 10 mg/kg of extract had the highest analgesia in formalin (P<0.05) and hot-plate test (P<0.01) compared to the control group. The analgesic effect of extract was lower than morphine 2.5 mg/kg and ASA 300 mg/kg in the chronic phase of pain in formalin test (P<0.05) and in hot-plate test too (P<0.05). Pretreatment of animal with naloxone 4 mg/kg, s.c. 5 min before extract, decreased the analgesia induced by extract in hot-plate and acute phase of formalin tests; therefore, the opioid receptor may be involved at least partly in the analgesic effect of Echium emoenum extract. The results suggested that Echium amoenum extract has a suitable analgesic effect and further studies are required to evaluate these effects and the potential of the plant.
Keywords: Echium amoenum, pain measurement, formalin test, hot-plate test
Indexed in: Medline / ISI / EMBASE
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 8: CCCC, 2005
Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on the Seizure Induced by Picrotoxin in Mice
M R. Heidari1, A. Assadipour1, P. Rashid-Farokhi2,H. Assad1 and A. Mandegary1,3
1. Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology. Faculty of Pharmacy, Neuroscience and Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
2. Faculty of Agriculture, Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.
3. Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
In this investigation, the effects of percolated and suxhelet Methanolic extract of aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on generalized seizure induced by picrotoxin was studied. The study was performed on groups of 10 animals pretreated with different doses of percolated (50, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg-1) and suxhelet (50 and 100
mg/kg-1) extracts of this plant by intraperitoneally (i.p.) injection. After 20 min each animal received picrotoxin 12 mg/kg-1 for induction of seizure. Latency of onset time of seizure, duration of seizure, death time and mortality rate were determined. The results showed that latency of seizure was increased in groups that pretreated with different doses of extract (P<0.01). The doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg-1 extract increased the duration of seizure compared with control group (P<0.01). The severity of seizure was milder in treated group with extract. The death time also increased with doses of 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg-1. The percolated extract of R. officinalis was more effective but not significant than suxhelet extract. The extracts have no effect on mortality rate. It seems that the R. officinalis extract has anticonvulsant activity on generalized seizure induced by picrotoxin in mice. Overall the more effective dose of extract was 50 mg/kg-1 and more experiments are needed in this field.
Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis L., seizure, picrotoxin, mice, rosemary
Indexed in: ISI / Chemical Abstract
Brain Research Protocols xx (2005) xxx-xxx
Eye-wiping: A sensitive animal model for acute trigeminal pain studies
Rasoul Farazifard1, Farzaneh Safarpour1,2, Vahid Sheibani1,Mohammad Javan3
1- Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
2- Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.
3- Department of Physiology School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modarress University, Tehran, Iran
The possibility of introducing eye-wiping test as a model of acute pain was examined in rat and it was compared with the well-known hot plate test. One drop of NaCl 5 M was placed into the animal eye and the number of eye wipes with the ipsilateral forelimb was counted during 30 s. The withdrawal latency in hot plate test was also examined. Afterward, animals were treated with morphine (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 mg/kg), imipramine (25 mg/kg), sodium salicylate (250 mg/kg) or saline (i.p). After 30 min, the animals were tested again with eye-wiping and hot plate tests. Our results showed that morphine injection dose dependently decreased the number of eye wipes and increased the response latency to hot plate tests. There was a good correlation between the analgesic effects of morphine on responses to both tests, however, morphine produced more pain in eye-wiping test. Imipramine significantly decreased the number of eye wipes and increased the response latency to hot plate test, while sodium salicylate and saline injection did not. It may be concluded that the eye-wiping test can be used as a reliable method in trigeminal apin studies, which is sensitive to opioid and tricyclic antidepressant in rat.
Keywords: Eye wiping, hot plate, morphine, pain
Indexed in: ISI / Pubmed
Science Direct-Medical Hypotheses, Vol 65, Issue 5, P: 823-1004 (2005)
Nanobacteria and Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Hossein Eskandary1,Mohammad Saba2,Touraj Yazdi2
1- Department of Neurosergery, Bahonar Hospital Gharani Street, Kerman, Iran.
2- Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran
The biology of intervertebral disc degeneration is not well understood. Ischemia due to occlusion and stenosis of feeding arteries has been considered as the most Important mechanism of disc degeneration. Any factor in the process of ischemia can lead to disc degeneration. During ischemic injury there is a significant increase in level of interleukin-1b. Cells of the intervertebral disc are biologically responsive and increase their production of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP), Nitric Oxide (NO), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 when stimulated by interlukin-1 beta. Induction of MMPs could lead to excessive breakdown of disc matrix, whereas NO and perhaps IL6 and PGE2 could impair matrix synthesis. Atheromatous plaque in the orifice of lumber arteries may prevent blood supply to disc area, leading to inadequate nutrition of the disc. These atheromatous plaques can be produced by Nanobacteria which has been discovered recently in human and cow blood and commercial cell culture serum. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc has secondary effects on the adjacent vertebral end plates and bone marrow. Medic’s group has classified the bone marrow changes according to signal intensity on MR images. The first reaction of bone marrow, edema and vascular congestion, called type 1 change, is hypointence on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Type-1 change is routinely enhanced with gadolinium and can simulate osteomyelitis. This picture and secondary ischemic process of vertebral arteries brought the idea of infectious process of disc degeneration in our mind, so based on the above mentioned study we hypothesized that disc degeneration may be the result of a chronic infectious process, caused by Nanobacteria.
Surgical Neurology 63 (2005) 550-553
Incidental Findings in Brain Computed Tomography Scans of 3000 Head Trauma Patients
Hossein Eskandary MD1*, Mohammad Sabba, MD2, Foruzandeh Khajehpour, MD3, Mohammad Eskandari, MD3
Divisions of Neurosurgery1 and Radiology2, Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran and Afzal Research Institute3
Limited reports exist about intracranial incidental findings on computed tomography (CT) imaging. We studied the frequency of incidental findings on 3000 brain CT scans of trauma patients. Three thousands standard brain CT scans of trauma patients were evaluated for some incidental findings. Cisterna magna was evaluated in 1500 CT scans. In this study we found 30 incidental abnormalities that include 8 cases of tumor: 3 meningioma, 2 craniopharingioma, 1 oligodendroglioma, 1 low-grade astrocytoma and 1 medulloblastoma. Suspect osteoma was found in 3 cases. In 3 cases, abnormal calcification was found in pineal region, basal ganglia and temporalhorn area. Three suspect lipomas were found in midline and near midline of the brain. Arachnoid cyst was found in 7 cases and hydrocephaly in 3 cases. Large cisterna magna (>10cm3) was found in 11 cases. Cisterna magna enlargement was the most common incidental finding and brain tumor and arachnoid cyst were next in frequency.
Keywords: incidental finding, CT scan, intracranial lesion, head trauma
Indexed in: ISI / Medline